Programa de la asignatura y lineamiento general


  • Asistencia: 75% mínimo y se toma asistencia 15 minutos después del comienzo de la clase. Asistencia se considera solo si alumno está presente ambos períodos.
  • Uso de celular, tablet o computador solo para propósitos educacionales.
  • Lectura de textos solo en idioma en Inglés. No se deben leer traducciones o resúmenes (salvo para contrastar texto original).
  • Las películas no reemplazan los libros.
  • Se solicita no comer en clases.

Gracias por cumplir estas indicaciones.

Julio Uribe (




Utopia & Dystopia



Vieira, Fatima. The concept of Utopia. The Cambridge Companion to Utopian Literature ed by Gregory Claeys. Cambridge University Press, 2010: 3-27.



DYSTOPIA: “Literary dystopia utilizes the narrative devices of literary utopia, incorporating into its logic the principles of euchronia (i.e., imagining what the same place – the place where the utopist lives – will be like in another time – the future), but predicts that things will turn out badly; it is thus essentially pessimistic in its presentation of projective images”. (p17)

AIM OF DYSTOPIAS: “But although the images of the future put forward in dystopias may lead the reader to despair, the main aim of this sub-genre is didactic and moralistic: images of the future are put forward as real possibilities because the utopist wants to frighten the reader and to make him realize that things may go either right or wrong, depending on the moral, social and civic responsibility of the citizens. A descendant of satirical utopia and of anti-utopia, dystopia rejects the idea that man can reach perfection. But although the writers of dystopias present very negative images of the future, they expect a very positive reaction on the part of their readers: on the one hand, the readers are led to realize that all human beings have (and will always have) f l aws, and so social improvement – rather than individual improvement – is the only way to ensure social and political happiness; on the other hand, the readers are to understand that the depicted future is not a reality but only a possibility that they have to learn to avoid. If dystopias provoke despair on the part of the readers, it is because their writers want their readers to take them as a serious menace; they differ, though, in intent, from apocalyptic writings that confront man with the horror of the end of society and humanity. Dystopias that leave no room for hope do in fact fail in their mission”. (p17)

DISAPPOINTMENT: “The awareness of the existing flaws in imagined societies had a positive intent, though: they aimed at making the readers keep looking for alternatives. Because of this, they came to be called critical utopias. But apart from these years, the twentieth century was predominantly characterized by man’s disappointment – and even incredulity – at the perception of his own nature, mostly when his terrifying deeds throughout the two World Wars were considered. In this context, utopian ideals seemed absurd; and the floor was inevitably left to dystopian discourse. In the second half of the twentieth century, in particular, dystopias became the predominant genre in the United States. Two ideas, which are intimately connected, have fed dystopian discourse: on the one hand, the idea of totalitarianism; on the other hand, the idea of scientific and technological progress which, instead of impelling humanity to prosper, has sometimes been instrumental in the establishment of dictatorships. The first images of a future where the results of scientific and technological progress were misused are to be found in the canonical dystopias of the Russian writer Yevgeny Zamyatin ( We,  1921), Aldous Huxley ( Brave New World ,  1932 ), and George Orwell ( Nineteen EightyFour ,  1949 ), and have, in fact, inspired generations of authors.  Mainly from the 1970s until the present, dystopias, nourished by projective images of scientific and technological advancement”. (p18)

EXTINCTION OF UTOPIA?: “The world is experiencing a grave crisis; the nature of our predicament is economic, environmental, social and political, but it is certainly also philosophical. Throughout history, utopia has been subject to similar pressures – will it not have a role to play this time? Looking around, it seems that utopia has been replaced by images of a very unsatisfactory present, or, in the case of utopian literature, by images of a dystopian future. Has man lost his capacity to think of alternatives? Is utopia, in fact, finally on the verge of death?” (p20)

UTOPIA NOWADAYS: “At the end of the nineteenth century and in the first half of the twentieth century, utopia was too easily identified with socialist-communist projects, as well as with the idea of totalitarianism. The two World Wars, Hitler’s utopian aspiration to ‘purify the human race’ and the collapse of the communist regimes all over the world led people to retreat from dreaming and forced them to adopt a very realistic perspective. Stigmatized by the ideas of impossibility and totalitarianism, utopian thought underwent an expressive change, and redefined its scope of action”. (p22)

Utopia & Dystopia presentation


Find information about the book assigned to you and your partner. Conduct a brief research on the following aspects of that novel: Theme, plot, conflict, main characters, setting and year of publication. Present your findings to the class.

  • Laritza Díaz-Roberto Valenzuela: Brave New World (Aldous Huxley)
  • Nicole Cisterna-Camila Godoy: Animal Farm (George Orwell)
  • Pedro Guzmán-Karina Torres: The Clockwork Orange (Anthony Burgess)
  • Gabriela Palomino-Claudia Araya: The Road (Cormac McCarthy)
  • Eliana Otárola-Aracely García: Fahrenheit 451 (Ray Bradbury)
  • Paulina Aguilar-Susana García: The Hunger Games (Suzanne Collins)
  • Javiera Barros-Antonio Cornejo: The Children of Men (P.D. James)
  • Jorge Cea-Camila Arias: Do Androids dream of electric sheep? (Philip K. Dick)
  • Cristina Sánchez-Catalina Tapia: Never Let me go (Ishiguro Kazuo)
  • Natalia Dumigual-Vicente Salvo: Nineteen eighty four (George Orwell)



Noam Chomsky – “10 strategies of manipulation” by the media

Renowned critic and always MIT linguist Noam Chomsky, one of the classic voices of  intellectual dissent in the last decade, has compiled a list of the ten most common and effective strategies resorted to by the agendas “hidden” to establish a manipulation of the population through the media.Historically the media have proven highly efficient to mold public opinion. Thanks to the media paraphernalia and propaganda, have been created or destroyed social movements, justified wars, tempered financial crisis, spurred on some other ideological currents, and even given the phenomenon of media as producers of reality within the collective psyche. But how to detect the most common strategies for understanding these psychosocial tools which, surely, we participate? Fortunately Chomsky has been given the task of synthesizing and expose these practices, some more obvious and more sophisticated, but apparently all equally effective and, from a certain point of view, demeaning. Encourage stupidity, promote a sense of guilt, promote distraction, or construct artificial problems and then magically, solve them, are just some of these tactics.

The strategy of distraction

The primary element of social control is the strategy of distraction which is to divert public attention from important issues and changes determined by the political and economic elites, by the technique of flood or flooding continuous distractions and insignificant information. distraction strategy is also essential to prevent the public interest in the essential knowledge in the area of the science, economics, psychology, neurobiology and cybernetics. “Maintaining public attention diverted away from the real social problems, captivated by matters of no real importance. Keep the public busy, busy, busy, no time to think, back to farm and other animals (quote from text Silent Weapons for Quiet War ).”

Create problems, then offer solutions

This method is also called “problem -reaction- solution. “It creates a problem, a “situation” referred to cause some reaction in the audience, so this is the principal of the steps that you want to accept. For example: let it unfold and intensify urban violence, or arrange for bloody attacks in order that the public is the applicant‟s security laws and policies to the detriment of freedom. Or: create an economic crisis to accept as a necessary evil retreat of social rights and the dismantling of public services.

The gradual strategy

acceptance to an unacceptable degree, just apply it gradually, dropper, for consecutive years. That is how they radically new socioeconomic conditions ( neoliberalism ) were imposed during the 1980s and 1990s: the minimal state, privatization, precariousness, flexibility, massive unemployment, wages, and do not guarantee a decent income, so many changes that have brought about a revolution if they had been applied once.

The strategy of deferring

Another way to accept an unpopular decision is to present it as “painful and necessary”, gaining public acceptance, at the time for future application. It is easier to accept that a future sacrifice of immediate slaughter. First, because the effort is not used immediately. Then, because the public, masses, is always the tendency to expect naively that “everything will be better tomorrow” and that the sacrifice required may be avoided. This gives the public more time to get used to the idea of change and accept it with resignation when the time comes.

Go to the public as a little child

Most of the advertising to the general public uses speech, argument, people and particularly children‟s intonation, often close to the weakness, as if the viewer were a little child or a mentally deficient. The harder one tries to deceive the viewer look, the more it tends to adopt a tone infantilising. Why? “If one goes to a person as if she had the age of 12 years or less, then, because of suggestion, she tends with a certain probability that a response or reaction also devoid of a critical sense as a person 12 years or younger (see Silent Weapons for Quiet War ).”

Use the emotional side more than the reflection

Making use of the emotional aspect is a classic technique for causing a short circuit on rational analysis , and finally to the critical sense of the individual. Furthermore, the use of emotional register to open the door to the unconscious for implantation or grafting ideas , desires, fears and anxieties , compulsions, or induce behaviors …

Keep the public in ignorance and mediocrity

Making the public incapable of understanding the technologies and methods used to control and enslavement. “The quality of education given to the lower social classes must be the poor and mediocre as possible so that the gap of ignorance it plans among the lower classes and upper classes is and remains impossible to attain for the lower classes (See „ Silent Weapons for Quiet War ).”

To encourage the public to be complacent with mediocrity

Promote the public to believe that the fact is fashionable to be stupid, vulgar and uneducated…

Self-blame Strengthen

To let individual blame for their misfortune, because of the failure of their intelligence, their abilities, or their efforts. So, instead of rebelling against the economic system, the individual auto-devaluate and guilt, which creates a depression, one of whose effects is to inhibit its action. And, without action, there is no revolution!

Getting to know the individuals better than they know themselves

Over the past 50 years, advances of accelerated science has generated a growing gap between public knowledge and those owned and operated by dominant elites. Thanks to biology, neurobiology and applied psychology, the “system” has enjoyed a sophisticated understanding of human beings, both physically and psychologically. The system has gotten better acquainted with the common man more than he knows himself. This means that, in most cases, the system exerts greater control and great power over individuals, greater than that of individuals about themselves.


V for Vendetta (Alan Moore & David Lloyd)


Based on the evidence we’re presented with, it seems that V was a “subversive” who was arrested during the early days of the Norsefire regime and sent to a concentration camp. There, he was injected with drugs and hormones that made him smarter, made him stronger, and made him forget his own past. Since breaking out of his prison, V has used terrorism to oppose the Norsefire regime, killing his former jailers and orchestrating an elaborate assault on its institutions. V is an anarchist who believes that violence and destruction are necessary in order to establish a new world order in which people consent to live with each other in peace, rather than submitting to the tyranny of a government.

Evey Hammond is 16 years old at the beginning of V for Vendetta, when she’s saved by V and taken to his underground lair to be his student and assistant. Initially, Evey finds V charming, and is highly grateful to him for saving her life. She assists him with some of his plans to attack the Norsefire government, but backs off when she realizes that V murders people in order to further his plans.

Adam Susan, usually known by his title, the Leader, is the dictator of England. His Norsefire regime ascended to power following a brutal, mysterious war that destroyed much of the planet. As Leader, Susan immediately began a series of programs whose goals were to “purify” the people of England, rounding up and murdering all homosexuals, Jews, blacks, Leftists, and Pakistanis. He used the specter of war to justify his harsh measures. As he settled into his role as the Leader, Susan became immensely lonely, recognizing that he was hated and feared by his subjects.

Conrad Heyer is the head of the Eye, the Norsefire institution charged with video monitoring all citizens of London, Conrad Heyer is a weak-willed, ineffectual man. He spends long hours watching Londoners in their homes, and is, as his wife, Helen Heyer puts it, London’s highest-paid “peeping Tom.”

Derek Almond is the head of the Finger, Norsefire’s law enforcement institution. He’s a cruel, cold man, though an undeniably effective law enforcement officer. At several points, he’s shown to mistreat his wife, Rosemary Almond, at one point slapping her in the face and making her weep.

Eric Finch is a talented, thoughtful detective, and one of the most important figures at the Nose (the Norsefire institution that investigates terrorism and other major crimes). Finch is unlike the majority of his colleagues, insofar as he dislikes the repressiveness and brutality of the Leader’s regime, and voices his dislike to the Leader himself.

The “Voice of Fate,” Lewis Prothero performs a crucial service for the Norsefire government. Every night, he reads the information printed by the Fate Computer, so that his voice is broadcast over every television and radio in England. Thanks to clever propaganda, the people of England don’t realize that Prothero exists: they believe that Prothero’s voice—supposedly a “magnificent” voice—is the voice of the computer itself. Beneath the magnificence of his voice, Prothero is a foolish and cruel man, who once worked as a guard at Larkhill Prison, the concentration camp where V was imprisoned, and seemed to have no qualms about murdering innocent people there.

Bishop Anthony Lilliman is a hypocritical, highly corrupt clergyman who once served as a chaplain at Larkhill Prison. Since this time, Lilliman has ascended to be the Bishop of Westminster, where he delivers sermons that betray a racist, bloodthirsty mindset. It’s revealed that Lilliman, in addition to his bigotry and cruelty, is guilty of pedophilia.

Delia Surridge is a middle-aged doctor who worked at Larkhill Prison years before V for Vendetta begins. She is a talented doctor, who researched drugs that could alter the human mind and body, and gave them to patients at Larkhill, confident that their agony and death would be for the greater good of her research. In the years following her experiences at Larkhill, Delia comes to realize that her experiments were barbaric.


V for Vendetta (excerpt)

Book 1 Chapter 11

Graphic Novels

What is a graphic novel?

  • Are graphic novels less literary than non-graphic novels?
  • When should a graphic novel be considered literary?
  • What is more important in a graphic novel, the text or the image?
  • How descriptive should an image be in a graphic novel?

Some benefits of graphic novels:

Activity in pairs

Read this text “Using graphic novels with children and teens” and then, reflect on all the benefits of graphic novels. Post them here.


Reading in circles: Assessed activity

Video explanation:

Assessed activity: Work in circles (groups of 4)

Part 1: Roles (assign each of you a role for this section)

A) S1 “Discussion director”: Create 4 debatable questions about the story you are reading. Share them with your group and answer them together.

B) S2 “Illustrator”: Create a mind-map that includes characters and events. How do they connect?

C) S3: Literary luminary: Select three important passages of the novel that require special attention. Paste these passages in the handout, include page. Justify why you consider them relevant and analyse them with your group. Include that analysis in the handout.

D) S4: Character analyzer: Choose 4 characters. Analyse them based on psychological description, roles in the story, decision-making, relevance.


Part 2: Analysis and reflection

A) Discuss your presentation topic with your group. Brainstorm what ideas or concepts you might want to consider or which chapters you should focus on. Share ideas. Summarise your thoughts.

B) Anticipate the end of the story. How do you think it will end? Agree on a possible ending and summarise your thoughts.


1 pt. each correct answer + 1 pt. for grammar/spelling.

Use this template to type your answers: Literary circles activity


Presentation topics: Unit 2


Finally, presentations will be in pairs. Please coordinate with your corresponding partner, so you can start focusing on your topic assigned.

The Kite Runner

  • Laritza Díaz-Roberto Valenzuela: “Loyalty vs betrayal”
  • Nicole Cisterna: “Pashtuns vs Hazaras”
  • Camila Godoy: “Amir’s artistic sensitivity”
  • Pedro Guzmán-Karina Torres: “Fatherhood”
  • Gabriela Palomino-Claudia Araya: “Immigration and exile”

The Catcher in the Rye

  • Eliana Otárola-Aracely García: “Alienation”
  • Paulina Aguilar-Susana García: “Phoniness”

To Kill a Mockinbird

  • Natalia Dumigual-Vicente Salvo: “Racism”
  • Javiera Barros-Antonio Cornejo: “Mockingbirds”
  • Jorge Cea-Camila Arias: “Childhood”
  • Cristina Sánchez-Catalina Tapia: “America in the 30’s”

Rubric and instructions: 2nd assessment Children and Young Adults’ literature

Unit II: Young narrators

In this second unit, you will choose one, out of three books to read. These are, The Kite Runner (Khaled Hosseini), To Kill a Mockingbird (Harper Lee) and The Catcher in the Rye (JD Salinger).

The Kite Runner

The tradition of Kite Running in Afghanistan:

Kite-running (Gudiparan Bazi) has been a favorite pastime in Afghanistan for the last 100 years, but there are few on the streets of Kabul that can forget the terror of living under the Taliban regime for so many years. Under Taliban rule, if you were caught with a kite, many times you would be beaten and the spool would be destroyed. However, since the fall of the Taliban regime, kite-running has again resurfaced tenfold. Kite-running is a two-person affair, with one person called the “charka gir” and the other called the “gudiparan baz.” The charka gir is in charge of the holding the wooden kite spool, around which the wire, or “tar” is wound. The second person, called the “gudiparan baz” actually is in control of the movement of the kite in the air. Kite flyers stand on tops of buildings, fighting with kites from all over the city. The object is to strike down the kite of your opponent with the string of your kite, after which you will be called the winner. The strings are often made with razor wire which gives the sharpness to cut down other kites. After an opponent’s kite is set free, it flutters away into the wind where it is usually picked up by the local children, who fly it the next day as their own. Kites are made of either extremely fragile tissue paper, or heavier more durable mylar fabric. They come in many colors, shapes, and sizes. Kites range in price depending on the size and materials used to make the kite. For a small, simple, child sized kite, the price starts at just a few cents. For large, elaborate, colorful kites, many with dangling adornments, the price can cost as much as [2 to 100] Afghanis, or $2 US.

(Extracted from:

True or False activity. Justify your FALSE statements:

1.- The Talibans forbid kiteflying because it was considered dangerous.

2.- Nowadays people are less interested in flying kites.

3.- The fighting technique is very important for kite flying.

4.- Sometimes 200 kites or more are sold in a day.

5.- The Afghan tradition of kite flying is very similar to the Chilean tradition.

Movie trailer:

Background information:

The two most important ethnic groups of Afghanistan: Pashtuns and Hazaras:

  • Pashtuns are the majority ethnic group in Afghanistan, about 42% thereby constituting just under half of the population
  • They are the highest ethnicity on the social ladder and dominate governmental bodies
  • Pashtu is their native language
  • They consist mainly of Sunni Muslims
  • The Hazara ethnic group resides mainly in the central Afghanistan mountain region called ‘Hazarajat’
  • They make up approximately 9% of Afghanistan’s population 
  • Historically, the Hazara seem to have Mongolian origins, as evidenced by physical attributes and parts of the culture and language
  • Most of the Hazaras are Shi’ite Muslims, and, the 1% of the population which is not Muslim is either Hindu, Sikh, or Jewish
  • In The Kite Runner, it is evident that Hazaras are considered to be on the lower end of the socio-economic scale

Act. 2 – Summary of recent historical events in Afghanistan:

1979: The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan and sets up a Communist government. In 1989, the Soviets are driven out by Afghan fighters called mujahedin.

1996: The Taliban seizes control of Kabul and spreads its control across the country. The extremist group introduces harsh laws and punishments.

2001: The Taliban protects the terrorist group al-Qaeda and its leader Osama bin Laden. After al-Qaeda’s September 11 attack on the U.S., American forces invade Afghanistan and remove the Taliban from power. The Taliban retains control over many remote areas.

2004: Afghanistan adopts a new constitution. Afghans elect Hamid Karzai in the country’s first democratic presidential election.

2011: Osama bin Laden dies. U.S. President Barack Obama announces that the U.S. will begin withdrawing some of its troops from Afghanistan.

2014: Ashraf Ghani becomes President. The US war in Afghanistan (America’s longest war) officially ended on December 28, 2014. However, thousands of US-led NATO troops have remained in the country to train and advise Afghan government forces.

Retrieved from:

Act. 3 – The Kite Runner character map:


To Kill a Mockingbird

“Thus, to kill a mockingbird is to destroy innocence. Throughout the book, a number of characters (Jem, Tom Robinson, Dill, Boo Radley, Mr. Raymond) can be identified as mockingbirds—innocents who have been injured or destroyed through contact with evil”.

Character list

Jean Louise “Scout” Finch –  The narrator and protagonist of the story. Scout lives with her father, Atticus, her brother, Jem, and their black cook, Calpurnia, in Maycomb. She is intelligent and, by the standards of her time and place, a tomboy. Scout has a combative streak and a basic faith in the goodness of the people in her community. As the novel progresses, this faith is tested by the hatred and prejudice that emerge during Tom Robinson’s trial. Scout eventually develops a more grown-up perspective that enables her to appreciate human goodness without ignoring human evil.

Atticus Finch –  Scout and Jem’s father, a lawyer in Maycomb descended from an old local family. A widower with a dry sense of humor, Atticus has instilled in his children his strong sense of morality and justice. He is one of the few residents of Maycomb committed to racial equality. When he agrees to defend Tom Robinson, a black man charged with raping a white woman, he exposes himself and his family to the anger of the white community. With his strongly held convictions, wisdom, and empathy, Atticus functions as the novel’s moral backbone.

Jeremy Atticus “Jem” Finch –  Scout’s brother and constant playmate at the beginning of the story. Jem is something of a typical American boy, refusing to back down from dares and fantasizing about playing football. Four years older than Scout, he gradually separates himself from her games, but he remains her close companion and protector throughout the novel. Jem moves into adolescence during the story, and his ideals are shaken badly by the evil and injustice that he perceives during the trial of Tom Robinson.

Arthur “Boo” Radley –  A recluse who never sets foot outside his house, Boo dominates the imaginations of Jem, Scout, and Dill. He is a powerful symbol of goodness swathed in an initial shroud of creepiness, leaving little presents for Scout and Jem and emerging at an opportune moment to save the children. An intelligent child emotionally damaged by his cruel father, Boo provides an example of the threat that evil poses to innocence and goodness. He is one of the novel’s “mockingbirds,” a good person injured by the evil of mankind.

Bob Ewell –  A drunken, mostly unemployed member of Maycomb’s poorest family. In his knowingly wrongful accusation that Tom Robinson raped his daughter, Ewell represents the dark side of the South: ignorance, poverty, squalor, and hate-filled racial prejudice.

Charles Baker “Dill” Harris –  Jem and Scout’s summer neighbor and friend. Dill is a diminutive, confident boy with an active imagination. He becomes fascinated with Boo Radley and represents the perspective of childhood innocence throughout the novel.

Miss Maudie Atkinson –  The Finches’ neighbor, a sharp-tongued widow, and an old friend of the family. Miss Maudie is almost the same age as Atticus’s younger brother, Jack. She shares Atticus’s passion for justice and is the children’s best friend among Maycomb’s adults.

Calpurnia –  The Finches’ black cook. Calpurnia is a stern disciplinarian and the children’s bridge between the white world and her own black community.

Aunt Alexandra –  Atticus’s sister, a strong-willed woman with a fierce devotion to her family. Alexandra is the perfect Southern lady, and her commitment to propriety and tradition often leads her to clash with Scout.

Mayella Ewell –  Bob Ewell’s abused, lonely, unhappy daughter. Though one can pity Mayella because of her overbearing father, one cannot pardon her for her shameful indictment of Tom Robinson.

Tom Robinson –  The black field hand accused of rape. Tom is one of the novel’s “mockingbirds,” an important symbol of innocence destroyed by evil.


How would you define these concepts?: Segregation – Abolitionism – Prejudice – Racism – Discrimination.

Link to article

The Montgomery Bus Boycott

TKM  Audiobook

The Catcher in the Rye

Mark David Chapman, The Catcher In The Rye, And The Killing of John Lennon: Article


  • How was Chapman and Lennon first interaction?
  • How did he feel after he killed him?
  • What do you think was his motivation to do that?
TITR Audiobook: